MULTILAYER CERAMIC CAPACITORS/AXIAL & RADIAL LEADED Multilayer ceramic capacitors are available in a variety of physical sizes and configurations, including leaded devices and surface mounted chips. Leaded styles include molded and conformally coated parts with axial and radial leads. However, the basic capacitor element is similar for all styles. It is called a chip and consists of formulated dielectric materials which have been cast into thin layers, interspersed with metal electrodes alternately exposed on opposite edges of the laminated structure. The entire structure is fired at high temperature to produce a monolithic block which provides high capacitance values in a small physical volume. After firing, conductive terminations are applied to opposite ends of the chip to make contact with the exposed electrodes. Termination materials and methods vary depending on the intended use. TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTICS Ceramic dielectric materials can be formulated with Class III: General purpose capacitors, suitable a wide range of characteristics. The EIA standard for for by-pass coupling or other applications in which ceramic dielectric capacitors (RS-198) divides ceramic dielectric losses, high insulation resistance and dielectrics into the following classes: stability of capacitance characteristics are of little or no importance. Class III capacitors are similar to Class Class I: Temperature compensating capacitors, II capacitors except for temperature characteristics, suitable for resonant circuit application or other appliwhich are greater than 15%. Class III capacitors cations where high Q and stability of capacitance charhave the highest volumetric efficiency and poorest acteristics are required. Class I capacitors have stability of any type. predictable temperature coefficients and are not affected by voltage, frequency or time. They are made KEMET leaded ceramic capacitors are offered in from materials which are not ferro-electric, yielding the three most popular temperature characteristics: superior stability but low volumetric efficiency. Class I C0G: Class I, with a temperature coefficient of 0 capacitors are the most stable type available, but have 30 ppm per degree C over an operating the lowest volumetric efficiency. temperature range of - 55C to + 125C (Also known as "NP0"). Class II: Stable capacitors, suitable for bypass X7R: Class II, with a maximum capacitance or coupling applications or frequency discriminating change of 15% over an operating temperature circuits where Q and stability of capacitance charrange of - 55C to + 125C. acteristics are not of major importance. Class II Z5U: Class III, with a maximum capacitance capacitors have temperature characteristics of 15% change of + 22% - 56% over an operating temor less. They are made from materials which are perature range of + 10C to + 85C. ferro-electric, yielding higher volumetric efficiency but less stability. Class II capacitors are affected by Specified electrical limits for these three temperature temperature, voltage, frequency and time. characteristics are shown in Table 1. SPECIFIED ELECTRICAL LIMITS Temperature Characteristics Parameter Dissipation Factor: Measured at following conditions. C0G - 1 kHz and 1 vrms if capacitance >1000pF 1 MHz and 1 vrms if capacitance 1000 pF X7R - 1 kHz and 1 vrms* or if extended cap range 0.5 vrms Z5U - 1 kHz and 0.5 vrms C0G X7R Z5U 0.10% 2.5% (3.5% @ 25V) 4.0% Dielectric Stength: 2.5 times rated DC voltage. Pass Subsequent IR Test Insulation Resistance (IR): At rated DC voltage, whichever of the two is smaller 1,000 M F or 100 G 1,000 M F or 100 G Temperature Characteristics: Range, C Capacitance Change without DC voltage -55 to +125 0 30 ppm/C -55 to +125 15% * MHz and 1 vrms if capacitance 1,000 M or 10 G 100 pF on military product. Table I 4 (c) KEMET Electronics Corporation, P.O. Box 5928, Greenville, S.C. 29606, (864) 963-6300 F + 10 to +85 +22%,-56% APPLICATION NOTES FOR MULTILAYER CERAMIC CAPACITORS Polarity: Multilayer ceramic capacitors are not polar, and may be used with DC voltage applied in either direction. Rated Voltage: This term refers to the maximum continuous DC working voltage permissible across the entire operating temperature range. Multilayer ceramic capacitors are not extremely sensitive to voltage, and brief applications of voltage above rated will not result in immediate failure. However, reliability will be reduced by exposure to sustained voltages above rated. Capacitance: The standard unit of capacitance is the farad. For practical capacitors, it is usually expressed in microfarads (10-6 farad), nanofarads (10-9 farad), or picofarads (10-12 farad). Standard measurement conditions are as follows: Class I (up to 1,000 pF): 1MHz and 1.2 VRMS maximum. Class I (over 1,000 pF): 1kHz and 1.2 VRMS maximum. Class II: 1 kHz and 1.0 0.2 VRMS. Class III: 1 kHz and 0.5 0.1 VRMS. Like all other practical capacitors, multilayer ceramic capacitors also have resistance and inductance. A simplified schematic for the equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 1. Other significant electrical characteristics resulting from these additional properties are as follows: R P Figure 1 R S L C C = Capacitance L = Inductance R = Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR) S R = Insulation Resistance (IR) P Impedance: Since the parallel resistance (Rp) is normally very high, the total impedance of the capacitor is: Z= Where 2 RS + (XC - XL) 2 Z = Total Impedance RS = Equivalent Series Resistance XC = Capacitive Reactance = 1 2 fC XL = Inductive Reactance = 2 fL The variation of a capacitor's impedance with frequency determines its effectiveness in many applications. Application Notes ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS The fundamental electrical properties of multilayer ceramic capacitors are as follows: Dissipation Factor: Dissipation Factor (DF) is a measure of the losses in a capacitor under AC application. It is the ratio of the equivalent series resistance to the capacitive reactance, and is usually expressed in percent. It is usually measured simultaneously with capacitance, and under the same conditions. The vector diagram in Figure 2 illustrates the relationship between DF, ESR, and impedance. The reciprocal of the dissipation factor is called the "Q", or quality factor. For convenience, the "Q" factor is often used for very low values of dissipation factor. DF is sometimes called the "loss tangent" or "tangent d", as derived from this diagram. ESR Figure 2 O DF = ESR Xc X c 1 Xc = 2fC Insulation Resistance: Insulation Resistance (IR) is the DC resistance measured across the terminals of a capacitor, represented by the parallel resistance (Rp) shown in Figure 1. For a given dielectric type, electrode area increases with capacitance, resulting in a decrease in the insulation resistance. Consequently, insulation resistance is usually specified as the "RC" (IR x C) product, in terms of ohm-farads or megohm-microfarads. The insulation resistance for a specific capacitance value is determined by dividing this product by the capacitance. However, as the nominal capacitance values become small, the insulation resistance calculated from the RC product reaches values which are impractical. Consequently, IR specifications usually include both a minimum RC product and a maximum limit on the IR calculated from that value. For example, a typical IR specification might read "1,000 megohm-microfarads or 100 gigohms, whichever is less." Insulation Resistance is the measure of a capacitor to resist the flow of DC leakage current. It is sometimes referred to as "leakage resistance." The DC leakage current may be calculated by dividing the applied voltage by the insulation resistance (Ohm's Law). Dielectric Withstanding Voltage: Dielectric withstanding voltage (DWV) is the peak voltage which a capacitor is designed to withstand for short periods of time without damage. All KEMET multilayer ceramic capacitors will withstand a test voltage of 2.5 x the rated voltage for 60 seconds. KEMET specification limits for these characteristics at standard measurement conditions are shown in Table 1 on page 4. Variations in these properties caused by changing conditions of temperature, voltage, frequency, and time are covered in the following sections. (c) KEMET Electronics Corporation, P.O. Box 5928, Greenville, S.C. 29606, (864) 963-6300 5 APPLICATION NOTES FOR MULTILAYER CERAMIC CAPACITORS TABLE 1 EIA TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTIC CODES FOR CLASS I DIELECTRICS Significant Figure of Temperature Coefficient Multiplier Applied to Temperature Coefficient Tolerance of Temperature Coefficient * PPM per Degree C Letter Symbol Multiplier Number Symbol PPM per Degree C Letter Symbol 0.0 0.3 0.9 1.0 1.5 2.2 3.3 4.7 7.5 C B A M P R S T U -1 -10 -100 -1000 -100000 +1 +10 +100 +1000 +10000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 60 120 250 500 1000 2500 G H J K L M N * These symetrical tolerances apply to a two-point measurement of temperature coefficient: one at 25C and one at 85C. Some deviation is permitted at lower temperatures. For example, the PPM tolerance for C0G at -55C is +30 / -72 PPM. TABLE 2 EIA TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTIC CODES FOR CLASS II & III DIELECTRICS 6 Low Temperature Rating High Temperature Maximum Capacitance Rating Shift Degree Celcius Letter Symbol Degree Celcius Number Symbol +10C -30C -55C Z Y X +45C +65C +85C +105C +125C +150C +200C 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 Percent 1.0% 1.5% 2.2% 3.3% 4.7% 7.5% 10.0% 15.0% 22.0% +22 / -33% +22 / -56% +22 / -82% Letter Symbol A B C D E F P R S T U V +10 +20 +30 +40 +50 +60 +70 (c) KEMET Electronics Corporation, P.O. Box 5928, Greenville, S.C. 29606, (864) 963-6300 +80 APPLICATION NOTES FOR MULTILAYER CERAMIC CAPACITORS Application Notes At higher AC voltages, both capacitance and dissipation factor begin to decrease. Typical curves showing the effect of applied AC and DC voltage are shown in Figure 6 for KEMET X7R capacitors and Figure 7 for KEMET Z5U capacitors. Effect of Frequency: Frequency affects both capacitance and dissipation factor. Typical curves for KEMET multilayer ceramic capacitors are shown in Figures 8 and 9. The variation of impedance with frequency is an important consideration in the application of multilayer ceramic capacitors. Total impedance of the capacitor is the vector of the capacitive reactance, the inductive reactance, and the ESR, as illustrated in Figure 2. As frequency increases, the capacitive reactance decreases. However, the series inductance (L) shown in Figure 1 produces inductive reactance, which increases with frequency. At some frequency, the impedance ceases to be capacitive and becomes inductive. This point, at the bottom of the V-shaped impedance versus frequency curves, is the self-resonant frequency. At the self-resonant frequency, the reactance is zero, and the impedance consists of the ESR only. Typical impedance versus frequency curves for KEMET multilayer ceramic capacitors are shown in Figures 10, 11, and 12. These curves apply to KEMET capacitors in chip form, without leads. Lead configuration and lead length have a significant impact on the series inductance. The lead inductance is approximately 10nH/inch, which is large compared to the inductance of the chip. The effect of this additional inductance is a decrease in the self-resonant frequency, and an increase in impedance in the inductive region above the self-resonant frequency. Effect of Time: The capacitance of Class II and III dielectrics change with time as well as with temperature, voltage and frequency. This change with time is known as "aging." It is caused by gradual realignment of the crystalline structure of the ceramic dielectric material as it is cooled below its Curie temperature, which produces a loss of capacitance with time. The aging process is predictable and follows a logarithmic decay. Typical aging rates for C0G, X7R, and Z5U dielectrics are as follows: C0G X7R Z5U Effect of Temperature: Both capacitance and dissipation factor are affected by variations in temperature. The maximum capacitance change with temperature is defined by the temperature characteristic. However, this only defines a "box" bounded by the upper and lower operating temperatures and the minimum and maximum capacitance values. Within this "box", the variation with temperature depends upon the specific dielectric formulation. Typical curves for KEMET capacitors are shown in Figures 3, 4, and 5. These figures also include the typical change in dissipation factor for KEMET capacitors. Insulation resistance decreases with temperature. Typically, the insulation resistance at maximum rated temperature is 10% of the 25C value. Effect of Voltage: Class I ceramic capacitors are not affected by variations in applied AC or DC voltages. For Class II and III ceramic capacitors, variations in voltage affect only the capacitance and dissipation factor. The application of DC voltage higher than 5 vdc reduces both the capacitance and dissipation factor. The application of AC voltages up to 10-20 Vac tends to increase both capacitance and dissipation factor. None 2.0% per decade of time 5.0% per decade of time Typical aging curves for X7R and Z5U dielectrics are shown in Figure 13. The aging process is reversible. If the capacitor is heated to a temperature above its Curie point for some period of time, de-aging will occur and the capacitor will regain the capacitance lost during the aging process. The amount of deaging depends on both the elevated temperature and the length of time at that temperature. Exposure to 150C for onehalf hour or 125C for two hours is usually sufficient to return the capacitor to its initial value. Because the capacitance changes rapidly immediately after de-aging, capacitance measurements are usually delayed for at least 10 hours after the de-aging process, which is often referred to as the "last heat." In addition, manufacturers utilize the aging rates to set factory test limits which will bring the capacitance within the specified tolerance at some future time, to allow for customer receipt and use. Typically, the test limits are adjusted so that the capacitance will be within the specified tolerance after either 1,000 hours or 100 days, depending on the manufacturer and the product type. (c) KEMET Electronics Corporation, P.O. Box 5928, Greenville, S.C. 29606, (864) 963-6300 7 APPLICATION NOTES FOR MULTILAYER CERAMIC CAPACITORS POWER DISSIPATION Power dissipation has been empirically determined for two representative KEMET series: C052 and C062. Power dissipation capability for various mounting configurations is shown in Table 3. This table was extracted from Engineering Bulletin F-2013, which provides a more detailed treatment of this subject. Note that no significant difference was detected between the two sizes in spite of a 2 to 1 surface area ratio. Due to the materials used in the construction of multilayer ceramic capacitors, the power dissipation capability does not depend greatly on the surface area of the capacitor body, but rather on how well heat is conducted out of the capacitor lead wires. Consequently, this power dissipation capability is applicable to other leaded multilayer styles and sizes. TABLE 3 POWER DISSIPATION CAPABILITY (Rise in Celsius degrees per Watt) Mounting Configuration Power Dissipation of C052 & C062 1.00" leadwires attached to binding post of GR-1615 bridge (excellent heat sink) 90 Celsius degrees rise per Watt 10% 0.25" leadwires attached to binding post of GR-1615 bridge 55 Celsius degrees rise per Watt 10% Capacitor mounted flush to 0.062" glassepoxy circuit board with small copper traces 77 Celsius degrees rise per Watt 10% Capacitor mounted flush to 0.062" glassepoxy circuit board with four square inches of copper land area as a heat sink 53 Celsius degrees rise per Watt 10% As shown in Table 3, the power dissipation capability of the capacitor is very sensitive to the details of its use environment. The temperature rise due to power dissipation should not exceed 20C. Using that constraint, the maximum permissible power dissipation may be calculated from the data provided in Table 3. It is often convenient to translate power dissipation capability into a permissible AC voltage rating. Assuming a sinusoidal wave form, the RMS "ripple voltage" may be calculated from the following formula: E=Zx Where PMAX R RELIABILITY A well constructed multilayer ceramic capacitor is extremely reliable and, for all practical purposes, has an infinite life span when used within the maximum voltage and temperature ratings. Capacitor failure may be induced by sustained operation at voltages that exceed the rated DC voltage, voltage spikes or transients that exceed the dielectric withstanding voltage, sustained operation at temperatures above the maximum rated temperature, or the excessive temperature rise due to power dissipation. Failure rate is usually expressed in terms of percent per 1,000 hours or in FITS (failure per billion hours). Some KEMET series are qualified under U.S. military established reliability specifications MIL-PRF-20, MIL-PRF-123, MILPRF-39014, and MIL-PRF-55681. Failure rates as low as 0.001% per 1,000 hours are available for all capacitance / voltage ratings covered by these specifications. These specifications and accompanying Qualified Products List should be consulted for details. For series not covered by these military specifications, an internal testing program is maintained by KEMET Quality Assurance. Samples from each week's production are subjected to a 2,000 hour accelerated life test at 2 x rated voltage and maximum rated temperature. Based on the results of these tests, the average failure rate for all non-military series covered by this test program is currently 0.06% per 1,000 hours at maximum rated conditions. The failure rate would be much lower at typical use conditions. For example, using MILHDBK-217D this failure rate translates to 0.9 FITS at 50% rated voltage and 50C. Current failure rate details for specific KEMET multilayer ceramic capacitor series are available on request. MISAPPLICATION Ceramic capacitors, like any other capacitors, may fail if they are misapplied. Typical misapplications include exposure to excessive voltage, current or temperature. If the dielectric layer of the capacitor is damaged by misapplication the electrical energy of the circuit can be released as heat, which may damage the circuit board and other components as well. If potential for misapplication exists, it is recommended that precautions be taken to protect personnel and equipment during initial application of voltage. Commonly used precautions include shielding of personnel and sensing for excessive power drain during board testing. E = RMS Ripple Voltage (volts) P = Power Dissipation (watts) Z = Impedance R = ESR The data necessary to make this calculation is included in Engineering Bulletin F-2013. However, the following criteria must be observed: 1. The temperature rise due to power dissipation should be limited to 20C. 2. The peak AC voltage plus the DC voltage must not exceed the maximum working voltage of the capacitor. Provided that these criteria are met, multilayer ceramic 8 capacitors may be operated with AC voltage applied without need for DC bias. STORAGE AND HANDLING Ceramic chip capacitors should be stored in normal working environments. While the chips themselves are quite robust in other environments, solderability will be degraded by exposure to high temperatures, high humidity, corrosive atmospheres, and long term storage. In addition, packaging materials will be degraded by high temperature - reels may soften or warp, and tape peel force may increase. KEMET recommends that maximum storage temperature not exceed 40 C, and maximum storage humidity not exceed 70% relative humidity. In addition, temperature fluctuations should be minimized to avoid condensation on the parts, and atmospheres should be free of chlorine and sulfur bearing compounds. For optimized solderability, chip stock should be used promptly, preferably within 1.5 years of receipt. (c) KEMET Electronics Corporation, P.O. Box 5928, Greenville, S.C. 29606, (864) 963-6300 APPLICATION NOTES FOR MULTILAYER CERAMIC CAPACITORS IMPEDANCE VS FREQUENCY 0.20 100 Impedance vs. Frequency Ceramic C0G Leaded .001F %C 0.10 %DF .01F 100 %DF -0.2 100 Figure 8. 1K 10K 100K 1M 0.0 10M Frequency - Hertz Capacitance & DF vs Frequency - C0G Impedance (Ohms) 10 10. Figure 10. Figure -0.1 Impedance (Ohms) %C +0.1 0 Application Notes EFFECT OF FREQUENCY +0.2 vs Frequency ImpedanceImpedance vs Frequency for C0G Dielectric for C0G Dielectric 10 1 0.001F 1 0.1 10. Figure 10. Figure 0.1 vs Frequency vs 0.01F Frequency ImpedanceImpedance for C0G Dielectric for C0G Dielectric 0.01 0.01 0.1 1 1 0 100 1000 Frequency - MHz 5.0 -10 2.5 -15 0.0 10M 100 1K 10K 100K 1M Figure 9. Frequency - Hertz Capacitance & DF vs Frequency - X7R & Z5U Figure 10. Frequency - MHz Impedance Impedance vs Frequency for C0G Dielectric vs. Frequency Leaded X7R 100 100 Impedance (Ohms) %C %C -5 1,000 7.5 Impedance (Ohms) %DF 0 Impedance vs Frequency Figure 10. Figure 10. Impedance vs Frequency 10.0 0.001 for C0G Dielectric for 0.1 1 C0G Dielectric 10 100 %DF +5 0.1F 10 10 0.01F .01F 0.1F 1.0 F 1 1.0F Impedance 11. Impedance vs Frequency Figure 11. Figure vs Frequency 1 0.1 for X7R Dielectric for X7R Dielectric EFFECT OF TIME (hours) 0.1 1 10 100 1000 Frequency - MHz vs Frequency Figure 11. Figure 11. ImpedanceImpedance vs Frequency 0.01 for X7R Dielectric for X7R Dielectric X7R X7R Capacitance Capacitance 0.001 0.1 1 Impedance vs. 10 Frequency 100 1,000 Z5U Z5U Impedance (Ohms) Leaded Z5U Figure Impedance vs Frequency Figure 11.Figure vs Frequency 11.11.ImpedanceFrequency - MHz for X7Rfor Dielectric for X7R Dielectric 100 Impedance vs Frequency X7R Dielectric 10 100 10 10 100 100 1000 1000 10K 10K Figure 13. Typical Aging Rates for X7R & Z5U 100K 100K Impedance (Ohms) 100% 100% 98% 98% 96% 96% 94% 94% 92% 92% 90% 90% 88% 88% 86% 86% 84% 84% 82% 82% 80% 80% 78% 78% 76% 76% 74% 74% 11 0.01 0.1 0.1F 1 0.1F 1.0F 10 0.1 1.0 F 0.01 1 0.1 1 1 0 100 1000 Frequency - MHz vs Frequency Figure 12. Figure 12. ImpedanceImpedance vs Frequency for Z5U Dielectric for Z5U Dielectric 0.1 0.01 vs Frequency Figure 12. Figure 12. ImpedanceImpedance vs Frequency for Z5U Dielectric for Z5U Dielectric 0.001 0.1 1 10 100 1,000 Figure 12. Frequency - MHz Impedance vs Frequency for Z5U Dielectric Impedance vs Frequency Figure 12. Figure 12.Impedance vs Frequency for Z5U Dielectric for Z5U Dielectric (c) KEMET Electronics Corporation, P.O. Box 5928, Greenville, S.C. 29606, (864) 963-6300 9 with current limited to 50mA. CERAMIC CONFORMALLY COATED/AXIAL "AXIMAX" GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS Working Voltage: Axial (WVDC) C0G 50, 100, 200 X7R 25, 50, 100, 200, 250 Z5U 50, 100 Radial (WVDC) C0G 50, 100, 200, 500, 1k, 1.5k, 2k, 2.5k, 3k X7R 25, 50, 100, 200, 250, 500, 1k, 1.5k, 2k, 2.5k, 3k Z5U 50, 100 Temperature Characteristics: C0G 0 30 PPM / C from -55C to +125C (1) X7R 15% from -55C to +125C Z5U + 22%, -56% from +10C to +85C Capacitance Tolerance: C0G 0.5pF, 1%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 20% X7R 10%, 20%, +80% / -20% Z5U 20%, 80% / -20% Construction: Epoxy encapsulated - meets flame test requirements of UL Standard 94V-0. High-temperature solder - meets EIA RS-198, Method 302, Condition B (260C for 10 seconds) Lead Material: Standard: 100% matte tin (Sn) with nickel (Ni) underplate and steel core ( "TA" designation). Alternative 1: 60% Tin (Sn)/40% Lead (Pb) finish with copperclad steel core ( "HA" designation). Alternative 2: 60% Tin (Sn)/40% Lead (Pb) finish with 100% copper core (available with "HA" termination code with c-spec) Solderability: EIA RS-198, Method 301, Solder Temperature: 230C 5C. Dwell time in solder = 7 seconds. Terminal Strength: EIA RS-198, Method 303, Condition A (2.2kg) ELECTRICAL Capacitance @ 25C: Within specified tolerance and following test conditions. C0G - >1000pF with 1.0 vrms @ 1 kHz 1000pF with 1.0 vrms @ 1 MHz X7R - with 1.0 vrms @ 1 kHz (Referee Time: 1,000 hours) Z5U - with 1.0 vrms @ 1 kHz Dissipation Factor @25C: Same test conditions as capacitance. C0G - 0.10% maximum X7R - 2.5% maximum (3.5% for 25V) Z5U - 4.0% maximum Insulation Resistance @25C: EIA RS-198, Method 104, Condition A <1kV C0G - 100 G or 1000 M - F, whichever is less. 500V test @ rated voltage, >500V test @ 500V X7R - 100 G or 1000 M - F, whichever is less. 500V test @ rated voltage, >500V test @ 500V Z5U - 10 G or 1000 M - F, whichever is less. ENVIRONMENTAL Vibration: EIA RS-198, Method 304, Condition D (10-2000Hz; 20g) Shock: EIA RS-198, Method 305, Condition I (100g) Life Test: EIA RS-198, Method 201, Condition D. <200V C0G - 200% of rated voltage @ +125C X7R - 200% of rated voltage @ +125C Z5U - 200% of rated voltage @ +85C >500V C0G - rated voltage @ +125C X7R - rated voltage @ +125C Post Test Limits @ 25C are: Capacitance Change: C0G ( 200V) - 3% or 0.25pF, whichever is greater. C0G ( 500V) - 3% or 0.50pF, whichever is greater. X7R - 20% of initial value (2) Z5U - 30% of initial value (2) Dissipation Factor: C0G - 0.10% maximum X7R - 2.5% maximum (3.5% for 25V) Z5U - 4.0% maximum Insulation Resistance: C0G - 10 G or 100 M - F, whichever is less. >1kV tested @ 500V. X7R - 10 G or 100 M - F, whichever is less. >1kV tested @ 500V. Z5U - 1 G or 100 M - F, whichever is less. Moisture Resistance: EIA RS-198, Method 204, Condition A (10 cycles without applied voltage). Post Test Limits @ 25C are: Capacitance Change: C0G ( 200V) - 3% or 0.25pF, whichever is greater. C0G ( 500V) - 3% or 0.50pF, whichever is greater. X7R - 20% of initial value (2) Z5U - 30% of initial value (2) Dissipation Factor: C0G - 0.10% maximum X7R - 2.5% maximum (3.5% for 25V) Z5U - 4.0% maximum Insulation Resistance: C0G - 10 G or 100 M - Fwhichever is less. 500V test @ rated voltage, >500V test @ 500V. X7R - 10 G or 100 M - F, whichever is less. 500V test @ rated voltage, >500V test @ 500V. Z5U - 1k M or 100 M - F, whichever is less. Thermal Shock: EIA RS-198, Method 202, Condition B (C0G & X7R: -55C to 125C); Condition A (Z5U: -55C to 85C) (1) +53 PPM -30 PPM/ C from +25C to -55C, + 60 PPM below 10pF. (2) X7R and Z5U dielectrics exhibit aging characteristics; therefore, it is highly recommended that capacitors be deaged for 2 hours at 150C and stabilized at room temperature for 48 hours before capacitance measurements are made. Dielectric Withstanding Voltage: EIA RS-198, Method 103 250V test @ 250% of rated voltage for 5 seconds with current limited to 50mA. 500V test @ 150% of rated voltage for 5 seconds with current limited to 50mA. 1000V test @ 120% of rated voltage for 5 seconds with current limited to 50mA. 10 (c) KEMET Electronics Corporation, P.O. Box 5928, Greenville, S.C. 29606, (864) 963-6300 ENVIRONMENTAL Vibration: CERAMIC CONFORMALLY COATED/RADIAL HIGH VOLTAGE "GOLD MAX" CAPACITOR OUTLINE DRAWING DIMENSIONS - INCHES (MILLIMETERS) Case Size L MAX H MAX T MAX S (Nominal) Lead Spacing .030 (.762) LD (Nominal) +.004 (.10) -.001 (.025) LL Minimum C617 C622/3 C627/8 C630/1 C637/8 C640/1 C642/3 C647/8 C657/8 C667/8 .250 (6.35) .320 (8.13) .370 (9.40) .450 (11.40) .470 (11.90) .550 (14.00) .500 (12.70) .570 (14.50) .670 (17.02) .770 (19.56) .220 (5.59) .280 (7.11) .300 (7.62) .220 (5.59) .400 (10.20) .280 (7.11) .560 (14.22) .500 (12.70) .600 (15.24) .720 (18.29) .200 (5.08) .250 (6.35) .250 (6.35) .200 (5.08) .270 (6.89) .250 (6.35) .200 (5.08) .270 (6.89) .270 (6.89) .270 (6.89) .170 (4.32) .220 (5.59) .275 (6.98) .300 (7.62) .375 (9.52) .400 (10.16) .400 (10.16) .475 (12.06) .575 (14.60) .675 (17.14) .025 (0.64) .025 (0.64) .025 (0.64) .025 (0.64) .025 (0.64) .025 (0.64) .025 (0.64) .025 (0.64) .025 (0.64) .025 (0.64) .276 (7.00) .276 (7.00) .276 (7.00) .276 (7.00) .276 (7.00) .276 (7.00) .276 (7.00) .276 (7.00) .276 (7.00) .276 (7.00) C 622 C CERAMIC CASE SIZE See Table Above 102 M D R 5 ORDERING INFORMATION T INTERNAL CONSTRUCTION 5 - Multilayer DIELECTRIC EIA Designation G - C0G (NP0) - Ultra Stable R - X7R - Stable RATED VOLTAGE (DC) C - 500 G - 2000 D - 1000 Z - 2500 F - 1500 H - 3000 CAPACITANCE TOLERANCE C0G: C - 0.25pF; D - 0.50pF; J - 5%; K - 10%; M - 20% X7R: K - 10%; M - 20%; P - 0, -100%; Z - -20,+80% MARKING INFORMATION KEMET Series Back View K6D 102K Series Capacitance, Tolerance KEMET K6DR 103K Voltage C63X Series Voltage Dielectric Capacitance, Tolerance C617 & C62X FAILURE RATE A - Not Applicable LEAD MATERIAL T - 100% Tin (Sn) - RoHS) H - 60/40 Tin (Sn)/Lead (Pb) SPECIFICATION C - Standard CAPACITANCE PICOFARAD CODE Expressed in picofarads (pF). First two digits represent significant figures. Third digit specifies number of zeros. Use 9 for 1.0 thru 9.9 pF. Example 2.2pF = 229 Front View A KEMET Date Code K6G 102K 1000V 0814 Capacitance, Tolerance Rated Voltage C64X, C65X, C66X For packaging information, see pages 47, and 48. 22 Voltage (c) KEMET Electronics Corporation, P.O. Box 5928, Greenville, S.C. 29606, (864) 963-6300 CERAMIC CONFORMALLY COATED/RADIAL HIGH VOLTAGE "GOLD MAX" RATINGS & PART NUMBER REFERENCE -- C0G/NP0 Goldmax HV C6XX Series Special Lead Spacing per M49467 - C617 Style Cap Code Cap Tol 1.0pF 1.5 2.2 2.7 3.3 3.9 4.7 5.6 6.8 8.2 10 12 15 18 22 27 33 39 47 56 68 82 100 120 150 180 220 270 330 390 470 560 680 820 1000 1200 1500 1800 2200 2700 3300 3900 4700 5600 6800 8200 .010uF .012 .015 .018 .022 .027 .033 .039 .047 .056 .068 .082 .10 109 159 229 279 339 399 479 569 689 829 100 120 150 180 220 270 330 390 470 560 680 820 101 121 151 181 221 271 331 391 471 561 681 821 102 122 152 182 222 272 332 392 472 562 682 822 103 123 153 183 223 273 333 393 473 563 683 823 104 C,D C,D C,D C,D C,D C,D C,D C,D C,D C,D J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M C62X C62X C63X C63X (X=2, 3) (X=7, 8) (X=0,1) (X=7, 8) WVDC 500 1k 1.5k WVDC 2k 3k 500 1k 1.5k WVDC WVDC 2k 3k 500 1k 1.5k 2k 3k 500 1k 1.5k 2k WVDC 2.5k 3k 500 1k 1.5k 2k 2.5k 3k High Voltage Gold Max Cap C0G Note: C6xx Series are commercial parts that meet special lead spacing requirements per MIL-PRF-49467. Group A inspection per MIL-PRF-49467 is available upon request. For packaging information, see pages 47 and 48. (c) KEMET Electronics Corporation, P.O. Box 5928, Greenville, S.C. 29606, (864) 963-6300 23 CERAMIC CONFORMALLY COATED/RADIAL HIGH VOLTAGE "GOLD MAX" RATINGS & PART NUMBER REFERENCE - C0G/NP0 Goldmax HV C6XX Series Special Lead Spacing per M49467 - C64X Style Cap Cap Code Cap Tol 1.0pF 1.5 2.2 2.7 3.3 3.9 4.7 5.6 6.8 8.2 10 12 15 18 22 27 33 39 47 56 68 82 100 120 150 180 220 270 330 390 470 560 680 820 1000 1200 1500 1800 2200 2700 3300 3900 4700 5600 6800 8200 .010uF .012 .015 .018 .022 .027 .033 .039 .047 .056 .068 .082 .10 109 159 229 279 339 399 479 569 689 829 100 120 150 180 220 270 330 390 470 560 680 820 101 121 151 181 221 271 331 391 471 561 681 821 102 122 152 182 222 272 332 392 472 562 682 822 103 123 153 183 223 273 333 393 473 563 683 823 104 J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M J,K,M C64X (X=0,1) (X=2, 3) WVDC 500 1k 2k 500 1k 2k C65X (X=7, 8) WVDC 3k C0G cont. C64X WVDC 3k 500 1k 2k C66X (X=7, 8) (X=7, 8) WVDC 3k 500 1k 2k WVDC 3k 500 1k 2k 3k Note: C6xx Series are commercial parts that meet special lead spacing requirements per MIL-PRF-49467. Group A inspection per MIL-PRF-49467 is available upon request. For packaging information, see pages 47 and 48. 24 (c) KEMET Electronics Corporation, P.O. Box 5928, Greenville, S.C. 29606, (864) 963-6300 CERAMIC CONFORMALLY COATED/RADIAL HIGH VOLTAGE "GOLD MAX" RATINGS & PART NUMBER REFERENCE - X7R Goldmax HV C6XX Series Special Lead Spacing per M49467 Style Cap Code Cap Tol 10pF 12 15 18 22 27 33 39 47 56 68 82 100 120 150 180 220 270 330 390 470 560 680 820 1000 1200 1500 1800 2200 2700 3300 3900 4700 5600 6800 8200 .010uF .012 .015 .018 .022 .027 .033 .039 .047 .056 .068 .082 .10 .12 .15 .18 .22 .27 .33 .39 .47 .56 .68 .82 1.0 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.2 2.7 100 120 150 180 220 270 330 390 470 560 680 820 101 121 151 181 221 271 331 391 471 561 681 821 102 122 152 182 222 272 332 392 472 562 682 822 103 123 153 183 223 273 333 393 473 563 683 823 104 124 154 184 224 274 334 394 474 564 684 824 105 125 155 185 225 275 K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z (X=2, 3) WVDC 500 1k 1.5k 500 1k 1.5k 2k C62X C63X (X=7, 8) WVDC 2k X7R WVDC 3k 500 1k 1.5k 2k C63X (X=0,1) (X=7, 8) WVDC WVDC 3k 500 1k 1.5k 2k 2.5k 3k 500 1k 1.5k 2k 2.5k 3k High Voltage Gold Max Cap C62X C617 Note: C6xx Series are commercial parts that meet special lead spacing requirements per MIL-PRF-49467. Group A inspection per MIL-PRF-49467 is available upon request. For packaging information, see pages 47 and 48. (c) KEMET Electronics Corporation, P.O. Box 5928, Greenville, S.C. 29606, (864) 963-6300 25 CERAMIC CONFORMALLY COATED/RADIAL HIGH VOLTAGE "GOLD MAX" RATINGS & PART NUMBER REFERENCE - X7R Goldmax HV C6XX Series Special Lead Spacing per M49467 - C64X Style Cap Cap Code Cap Tol 10pF 12 15 18 22 17 33 39 47 56 68 82 100 120 150 180 220 270 330 390 470 560 680 820 1000 1200 1500 1800 2200 2700 3300 3900 4700 5600 6800 8200 .010uF .012 .015 .018 .022 .027 .033 .039 .047 .056 .068 .082 .10 .12 .15 .18 .22 .27 .33 .39 .47 .56 .68 .82 1.0 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.2 2.7 100 120 150 180 220 270 330 390 470 560 680 820 101 121 151 181 221 271 331 391 471 561 681 821 102 122 152 182 222 272 332 392 472 562 682 822 103 123 153 183 223 273 333 393 473 563 683 823 104 124 154 184 224 274 334 394 474 564 684 824 105 125 155 185 225 275 K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z K,M,P,Z C64X (X=0,1) (X=2, 3) WVDC 500 1k 2k (X=7, 8) WVDC 3k 500 1k 2k X7R cont. C64X WVDC 3k 500 1k 2k C65X C66X (X=7, 8) (X=7, 8) WVDC 3k 500 1k 2k WVDC 3k 500 1k 2k 3k Note: C6xx Series are commercial parts that meet special lead spacing requirements per MIL-PRF-49467. Group A inspection per MIL-PRF-49467 is available upon request. For packaging information, see pages 47 and 48. 26 (c) KEMET Electronics Corporation, P.O. Box 5928, Greenville, S.C. 29606, (864) 963-6300 CERAMIC LEADED Tape and Reel Packaging PACKAGING INFORMATION (c) KEMET Electronics Corporation, P.O. Box 5928, Greenville, S.C. 29606, (864) 963-6300 47 CERAMIC LEADED PACKAGING INFORMATION CERAMIC PACKAGING KEMET Series C114C-K-G C124C-K-G C192C-K-G C202C-K C222C-K C052C-K-G C062C-K-G C114G C124G C192G C202G C222G C052/56G C062/66G C512G C522G C114T C124T C192T C202T C222T C052/56T C062/66T C31X C32X C33X C340 C350 C410 C412 C420 C430 C440 C512 C522 C617 C622/C623 C627/C628 C630/C631 C637/C638 C640/C641 C642/C643 C647/C648 C657/C658 C667/C668 Military Style CK12, CC75 CK13, CC76 CK14, CC77 CK15 CK16 CK05, CC05 CK06, CC06 CCR75 CCR76 CCR77 CC78-CCR78 CC79-CCR79 CCR05 CCR06 CC07-CCR07 CC08-CCR08 CKR11 CKR12 CKR14 CKR15 CKR16 CKR05 CKR06 N/A N/A Military Specification MIL-C-11015/ MIL-PRF-20 MIL-PRF-20 MIL-PRF-39014 N/A N/A Standard (1) Bulk Quantity 200/Box 200/Box 100/Box 25/Box 10/Tray 100/Bag 100/Bag 200/Box 200/Box 100/Box 25/Box 10/Tray 100/Bag 100/Bag Footnote (2) Footnote (2) 200/Box 200/Box 100/Box 25/Box 10/Tray 100/Bag 100/Bag 500/Bag 500/Bag 250/Bag 100/Bag 50/Bag 300/Box 200/Box 300/Box 200/Box 200/Box Footnote (2) Footnote (2) 250/Bag 100/Bag 100/Bag 100/Bag 50/Bag 50/Bag 50/Bag 50/Bag 50/Bag 50/Bag Ammo Pack Quantity Maximum 2000 1500 2500 2500 1500 1000 N/A 4000 4000 4000 2000 2000 Maximum Reel Quantity 5000 5000 3000 500 300 2000 1500 5000 5000 3000 500 300 1700 1500 N/A N/A 5000 5000 3000 500 300 1700 1500 2500 2500 1500 1000 500 5000 5000 5000 2500 2500 N/A N/A 1000 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 NOTE: (1) Standard packaging refers to number of pieces per bag, tray or vial. (2) Quantity varies. For further details, please consult the factory. 48 (c) KEMET Electronics Corporation, P.O. Box 5928, Greenville, S.C. 29606, (864) 963-6300 Reel Size 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" N/A N/A 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" N/A N/A 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12"